The Living Universe

January 27, 2020

Gravity Cannon Experiment Test of General Relativity

To fully understand the principle of the gravitational expansion of mass, space, and time, it is necessary to first present a little science fiction tale. This is a story about the initial discovery of gravitational motion and force by a group of scientists far more advanced than beginning theoretical physicists like Galileo, Newton and Einstein.
January 27, 2020

The Experimental Theory of Gravity

There is a great deal of confusion and contradiction in the standard model relativity theories of physics and the Big Bang. There is little consensus about the true experimental nature of Mass, Space, Time and Gravity and their measured physical quantities of Momentum, Force, and Energy. Theoretical physicists calculate and believe that mass, momentum, Force, and energy are stand along entities that can be physically separated from one another. The principle of Circlon Synchronicity combines them in a single inseparable unit E/M = CC.
January 27, 2020

Mass, Space, Time, and Gravity = MS/T & G = MS/T2

Mass, Space, Time, and Gravity are the four basic metaphysical assumptions for the reality of physical measurement. They have no separate measurable definitions outside of these two equations. Their separate values can be measured but only as a part of the whole. This a unified principle of measurement for atoms, photons, gravity, and cosmology. This physical principle of the cosmos is not meant to be a physics “theory” of matter and gravity. It is merely measurements of absolute linear and angular momentum and contains no unmeasured metaphysical assumptions such as spacetime, aethers, or gravitational “fields”.
December 6, 2019

The Variable Speed of Light Versus the Absolute Motion of Clocks

Even though the speed of light is always constant in empty space, it is measured to have a different value in every moving inertial frame due to the time dilation of clocks. The following series of thought experiments are devised to show what natural laws and constants remain the same through changes in momentum and which laws are altered by acceleration or deceleration. Mass, Space, Time, and Gravity are all changed by changes in linear momentum.
October 28, 2019

Falsification of General Relativity

The gravitational deflection of starlight as it passes near the edge of the Sun was predicted by both Newton and Einstein but a careful analysis of this effect reveals it to be an optical illusion and not the physical event of a photon’s path actually curving when it interacts with Einstein’s invention of a four-dimensional spacetime continuum aether. The measured angle of the effect results from the expansion of Earth during the 8 minutes it takes for the photons to travel between the sun and Earth. If photons really were deflected by gravitating bodies, they would become so jumbled up that astronomical observations of the cosmos would be impossible.
October 27, 2019

Secret Life of Quasars

Ever since they were first discovered, the true nature of quasars has long been one of the most difficult paradoxes in cosmology and astrophysics. There is nothing in the initial assumptions of the Big Bang and Relativity theories that would lead to the creation of quasars. Also, the principles of quantum mechanics offer no solutions to the gigantic energies that quasars are purported to produce. The experimental observations of over two thousand quasars leads to a completely new explanation of them. It is concluded that all of these peculiar stars reside within the Milky Way and not at the edges of the universe.
October 26, 2019

Physical Principles of Cosmic Measurement

Instead of Big Bang’s initial singularity of “pure” unlimited energy, the Living Cosmos begins with the duality of a single antimatter/matter pair containing the exact Energy/ Mass of today’s cosmos E/M = C2. It is based on the principles and conservation laws of the scientific method for the experimental measurement of mass, space, time, and gravity. These particles have always had a total mass of about 1080 protons and a total energy of about 1067J. The total Energy/Mass = c2 of the atoms and photons in the cosmos has always been about c2 = E/M = 1067J/1050kg. The reality of the Living Cosmos begins as a single anti-hydrogen atom sitting at rest in the “center” of a universal void. What makes this anti-atom “alive” is that first it has eternal existence and then relative to the constant size and mass of the positron, the antiproton is slowly growing in size with a proportional decrease in its mass.
February 6, 2019

Gods of Creation

A Divine Alternative to Big Bang Theory that Eliminates the Pure Energy Singularity, Guth Inflation, Intrinsic Matter/Antimatter Inequality and Gravitational Collapse in the Accumulation and Formation of Galaxies, Stars, Planets, and the Atoms Within Them.
December 7, 2018

Why Einstein was an Ignorant Fool

How Einstein, being ignorant of today’s experimental physics, was able to fool the world into believing in many foolish things like infinite fields, massless photons, downward pulling gravity, equivalent momentum and force and an instantaneous expanding Big Bang singularity of pure energy instead of the eternal, stationary, and living cosmos dualities of atoms and photons.
March 9, 2018

New Components of Our Measured Reality

The use of accelerometers to measure the motion produced by inertial force, centrifugal force, centripetal force, and gravitational force is at the basic foundation of all experimental physics. The paradox here is that these simple measurements are more or less misunderstood by both scientists and laypersons alike. It seems that almost no one is capable of fully understanding the nature of these forces and motions or accepting their measurements at face value. Everyone, including Einstein, seems to have gotten it either backwards, inside out, or upside down.
February 16, 2018

Big Bang Theory’s Nuclear Option

The following story of the Living Universe is a quantum mechanical tale of how a single antimatter atom God Seed germinated, sprouted, grew, and then went to seed with exactly 2257 protons and electrons. The dynamics and interactions of the Living Universe can be understood and illustrated by measuring quantum mechanical parameters and gravitational dynamics with accelerometer readings of force and motion to calculate the values of momentum, force, and energy for atoms and photons.

February 15, 2018

Centrifugal, Centripetal, and Gravitational Force and Motion

The use of accelerometers to measure the motion produced by inertial force, centrifugal force, centripetal force, and gravitational force is at the basic foundation of all experiment physics. The paradox is that these simple measurements are more or less completely misunderstood by both scientists and laypersons alike. It seems that almost no one is capable of fully understanding what these forces really are or the important role they play in our everyday realities. Everyone seems to get it all backwards.

November 21, 2017

About James Carter and his New Theory of Everything

I am what is known by the scientific establishment as an outlier crank theoretical physicist with my own crackpot pet theories of photons, atoms, gravity, and the Big Bang. There are a great many of these “dissident” physicists each with their own particular theory to explain various experimental measurements. Virtually all of these theories are based on their author’s particular style of aether that is meant to either replace or be added to the spacetime continuum fields of special and general relativity.
June 12, 2017

JOULES OF THE LIVING UNIVERSE

This diagram shows the quantity of energy measured in Joules for everything from the extremely week photons from AC transmission lines to the total energy of the Big Bank and the creation of the universe.
June 12, 2017

Introduction to the Principle of Circlon Synchronicity

Circlon Synchronicity is a mechanical principle that describes physical atomic phenomena without the use of aethers, fields, spacetime dimensions or a multidimensional continuum. It is simply a dynamic mechanical shape for matter and photons that can exist on all imaginable levels of scale.
May 9, 2017

Introduction to the Physical Principles and Metaphysical Assumptions of Circlon Synchronicity

All theories are based on physical principles that are explained with metaphysical assumptions. Physical principles are the body of experimental mass, space, time, and gravity measurements that a theory tries to interpret. Metaphysical assumptions are hidden characteristics within a particular scientific experiment that can explain its measured values but are not subject to physical measurement. These assumptions are the four sole ideas of consciousness that our minds receive from the measuring instruments of our senses. Common sense is the perceived result that is shared by all our senses and measuring instruments.
May 9, 2017

Four New Laws for the Measurement of Force and Motion

All experiments to measure the momentum, force and energy of moving bodies of mass, photons and gravity use the equations of these four laws to calculate their values. All experiments to measure force and motion use the Newtonian force equation of F = ma*d to calculate the relative values of acceleration and deceleration. (Force = mass times a combination of absolute acceleration and deceleration.)
May 9, 2017

Six Dimensions of Time and Motion

Measurements with very accurate clocks show that there are three distinct dimensions to the flow of time as represented by three different motions of matter and photons. Metaphysical time is the continuos idea of time that is common to all dimensions of time. Clocks divide individual dimensions of metaphysical time into intervals of physical time. Photon time, Earth time, and Gravitational time are the three separate dimensions of time that are each measured with a different kind of clock mechanism. All clocks divide time into intervals to quantify one of these three dimensions of time and motion.
May 9, 2017

The Invention of the Circlon Model of Nuclear Structure

The circlon shape is a mechanical structure composed of three sets of concentric coils of hollow spinning cosmic mass string. There is no Strong Nuclear Force holding the nuclei of matter together nor is there and a weak force field holding neutrons together. The nucleus is held together mechanically in much the same way that other machines are held together with nuts and bolts.
May 9, 2017

Lorentz Transformations and the Twin Paradox

The Lorentz transformation m’ = M/√1-v2 /c2 is a principle of measurement that can be classed as one of the laws of physics. (A moving body’s kinetic mass m’ is equal to its rest mass M divided by the square root of one minus the Lorentz velocity squared v2 divided by the speed of light squared c2 ). It comes into play whenever a body of mass undergoes measurable acceleration or deceleration.
May 9, 2017

The Pound-Rebka Experiment as Disproof of Einstein’s General Relativity Gravity Theory.

When Einstein first used his equations to predict the transverse gravitational red shift of photons and the gravitational slowing of clocks, the effect was so small that it seemed impossible to measure. It was not until four years after his death that the effect was finally accurately measured in the laboratory. In 1959, Robert Pound and Glen Rebka made very accurate measurements of both red and blue transverse Doppler effects in the momentum of gamma ray photons produced by vertical differences in gravitational escape/surface velocity esV between the top and bottom of Harvard’s Jefferson Tower. The measured values of this experiment do not support Einstein’s downward pointing theory of gravity.
May 9, 2017

GPS Satellite Clocks Clock Rates Adjusted for Inertial Motion and Gravitational Motion

In the 1980s, it was discovered that atomic clocks run at different rates in different orbits. Clocks run slowest in low space shuttle orbits and then run faster and faster in higher and higher orbits until, at an orbit of about 1.5 times Earth’s radii, they surpass the rates of sea level clocks. Physicists were able to use the equations of Einstein’s special and general theories relativity to calculate the correct rates for orbiting clocks but these equations were based on unmeasured metaphysical assumptions of relative motion. It is shown here that the same accurate calculations can be made using physical principles of measurements of absolute motion.
May 9, 2017

The Discovery of the Hydrogen Spectrum

In 1996, I found a list of the first few photons in the Lyman, Balmer and Paschen series of Hydrogen’s spectrum. After a few false starts, I was able to put together a simple mathematical system that could calculate the wavelength of each photon in the Hydrogen spectrum.
May 9, 2017

The Celerity of Photons

In 1996, I found a list of the first few photons in the Lyman, Balmer and Paschen series of Hydrogen’s spectrum. After a few false starts, I was able to put together a simple mathematical system that could calculate the wavelength of each photon in the Hydrogen spectrum.
May 9, 2017

The Discovery of the Constant Speed of Light

Credit for the great discovery of the speed of light should be given to Galileo since he was the first person to actually measure its speed by flashing the light from lanterns between mountain tops. With only his heartbeat for a clock, Galileo measured the speed of light to be many miles in less than a heart beat.
May 9, 2017

An Experimental Test of Photon Mass versus Special Relativity

The essence of Special Relativity is Einstein’s assumption of e = mc2 for a massless photon and the mass of kinetic energy. This is the proper equation for the energy of moving matter but the proper equation for the photon is the reciprocal equation of cC = √e/m. Where Einstein made his mistake was his symbol of c2 . Where the photon is concerned, c2 is not the squaring of a single velocity but the multiplying together of two separate velocities c and C that may or may not be equal to c2 . c is the relative velocity of photon measurement and C is the absolute velocity of photon spin. This experimental test will decisively measure the difference between Einstein’s idea of a massless photon of “pure energy” and the Newtonian principle of measurement of the momentum, force and energy of moving photon mass.
May 9, 2017

The Discovery of Gravity

In all of physical measurements of force and motion, gravity is the only discovery with three dimensional motion, force and time. Gravity has a third dimension of time that is not common to its other two dimensions. The third dimension of gravitational time does not have consecutive equal intervals with the other two dimensions of time.
May 9, 2017

Discovering of the Gravitational Expansion of Mass, Space and Time

The true workings of gravity are easily understood by small children, since from infancy, they have already learned how to balance their bodies against the constant upward force of gravity. The true mechanism of gravity is nothing more complex than the upward force and motion that each child feels at a conscious level and understands completely within their subconscious minds. Children easily completely understand gravity because they feel it happening to their bodies. It seems that adults have long forgotten that their subconscious minds are continually maintaining their body’s balance by constantly feeling the upward acceleration of Earth’s surface. If you were to ask your subconscious mind about the direction of the motion and force gravity, it would tell you that it definitely pointed up. The subconscious mind understands completely and exactly what gravity does but has no need or concern for why or how it is happening.
May 9, 2017

The New Gravitational Constant Gv

When Newton calculated his gravitational constant G, he got it upside down. There are two reciprocal constants of gravity that represent cause and effect of force and motion. Newton’s imagined a downward force of gravity that caused the effect of downward gravitational velocity in falling bodies. Even though he spent his whole life feeling gravity pushing his body upward, Newton refused to believe that this real gravitational motion was the cause and not the effect of the upward force that he measured with his accelerometer.
May 9, 2017

The Cavendish Balance

Certain observations that have long been considered to be gravitational in nature may well be electromagnetic interactions. An example of this is the experimental measurement of the gravitational constant. Based on gravitational logic, the forces produced by a Cavendish balance have been used to measure the gravitational constant (G). This result is then used to determine the mass of the Earth in terms of kilograms. The Cavendish balance measures mass by the amount of long range electric force that it can block.
May 9, 2017

Circlon Tidal Forces

Ocean tides are caused by the push and pull of the electrons in the atomic radiation chains. These electrons have expanded in size to the orbits of the sun and moon. They form virtual atoms with the sun and moon serving as their nuclei. An atom from the moon joins with an atom from Earth to form a pseudo Hydrogen atom that uses its ionization energy to push on Earth and the moon and sun. You cannot push on a rope, but you can push on the link of a chain.
May 9, 2017

The Orbiting Chain Experiment

To demonstrate an orbit around the Earth, we will first describe an experiment that was available even in Galileo’s time. A powerful cannon is fired over the surface of the Earth and the path of the cannonball is recorded. The cannon is then again fired from the point where the first cannonball struck. This process continues until the cannonball has traveled all the way around the Earth.
May 9, 2017

The Painted Balloon Experiment

The observation of cloud segmentation dynamics is the definitive measurement for the gravitational expansion of mass, space and time. If clouds didn’t segment the way they do, then it would be a decisive proof of either General Relativity’s curved gravitational spacetime or Newton’s flat gravitational attraction field. In this experiment, the common gravitational expansion phenomenon of cloud segmentation is demonstrated with the expansion of a painted balloon
May 9, 2017

A Definitive Measurement for the Law of Gravity

The gravity cannon experiment is a very simple test that can provide decisive confirmation or falsification of all the different gravitational theories. Although it would have to be performed in the weightlessness of outer space, this experiment could otherwise be executed very easily and inexpensively. A Gold ball would loosely fit inside of a hole passing through the center of a solid, clear glass sphere. When a motionless ball is placed at the barrel’s mouth, the gravitational force and motion, whatever it might be it cause, is measured and recorded with a video camera.
May 9, 2017

The Bogus Beginning of the Universe as a “Big Bang”

Ever since the author of Genesis wrote, “In the beginning, god said, “Let there be photons”, people have been inventing ideas and theories to explain the creation of matter and energy in the universe. At the present time, many of these ideas have been loosely fitted into what has come to be called the Standard Model of the Big Bang. Cosmologist have been constantly refining these theories as new observations of the cosmos are made, but it still remains a very imperfect model containing many paradoxes and contradicting phenomena. It is shown here that the metaphysical interpretations of the several component observations used to construct the Big Bang model do not complement one another to create a valid explanation of mass, space, time and gravity. In contrast, if we accept literal physical interpretations for the measurements and observations used to construct a model of the universe, we arrive at an extremely consistent model for the evolution of matter and energy in a Living-Universe.
May 9, 2017

Evolution of Matter and Antimatter in the Living-Universe

This is not a new theory of matter or energy. It is just a new way of looking at the physics of the Big Bang from the inside out. It is a description of the creation and evolution of the universe that is derived completely from physical measurement and the inductive reasoning process rather than from the deductive method beginning with metaphysical assumptions. This description contains none of the paradoxes and contradictions inherent in the Big Bang model.
May 9, 2017

The Discovery of Antimatter and Cosmic Rays

The answer to the problem of the Big Bang theory’s missing antimatter is that today’s protons and electrons were particle-antiparticle pairs at the time when they were created. Around 1930, Paul Dirac made the great and unexpected discovery of antimatter with just a pencil and paper and a few logical thoughts running through his great mind.
May 9, 2017

A Prediction of the Temperature of the Cosmic Blackbody Radiation

When the circlon model of atomic and nuclear structure is combined with the transformation of electron mass, it predicts both the occurrence and the temperature of the CBR. These predictions make no assumptions other than the circlon shape and the 5 measured quantum mechanical constants of MP ME ao α and Hλ∞.
May 9, 2017

The Circlon Model of Nuclear Structure

The nuclear structures of the elements are formed by the mechanical interlocking of four particles of matter. These are Protons, Mesons, Neutrons, and Antineutrinos. The antineutrino is an internal structure within the neutron and is not shown in these mechanical diagrams of atomic nuclear structure. External electrons which mechanically attach to the mesons are also not shown. In these models, the protons, mesons, and neutrons, fit together like jigsaw puzzles and are held together mechanically somewhat like nuts and bolts. Metaphysical fields and forces such as the strong and weak forces are not assumed or needed in this explanation of nuclear physics. By following a few structural rules the most common and most stable nuclear isotope of each element is formed in a step by step process that also provides unique structural models of each of the 2000 or more radioactive isotopes that have been discovered.
May 9, 2017

Nuclear Stability Models for Each of the Chemical Elements

The consecutive process of nuclear structure is carried all the way through the periodic table of the elements with the step by step addition of each proton and neutron to the stability model of the atomic nucleus. These models of nuclear structure are formed by the mechanical interlocking of Protons, Mesons, and Neutrons. In these models that are actually a type of mathematical equation for each nucleus. The protons, mesons, and neutrons, fit together like jigsaw puzzles and are held together mechanically somewhat like nuts and bolts. Metaphysical fields and forces such as the strong and weak forces are not assumed or needed in this explanation of nuclear physics. By following a few structural rules the most common and most stable nuclear isotope of each element is formed in a step by step process that also provides unique structural models of each of the 2000 or more radioactive isotopes that have been discovered.
May 9, 2017

Experimental Test of Quantum Mechanics versus Circlon Nuclear Structure

The Circlon Model of Nuclear Structure is basically a series of geometrical equations that provide a precise mechanical electron-proton and neutron structure for the atoms of each element in the periodic table. It also dictates the individual placement of neutrons within the elements’ nearly 2000 stable and unstable isotopes. The various structural layers of protons and mesons within these circlon models correspond closely to the external electron shell configurations measured and calculated by quantum field electrodynamics. Up until Palladium, the circlon model has the same electron shell configurations as calculated by quantum field equations. This proposed experimental measurement can decisively show a clear difference between the circlon model of nuclear structure and the electron shell predictions of quantum mechanical theories of the atom.
April 11, 2017

Gravitational Psychology

When Einstein arrived at the Gravity Highway, he found it to be a one way street with no traffic and no directional signs. He made a great career out of his decision to go the wrong way down this road without giving it a second thought. I am sure that if he had chosen to turn around and go the other way, as I have done, nobody would have ever believed him either. Einstein, as well as his followers, had a complete mental block when it came to understanding the true dynamics of the scientific method of measurement using Newtonian measurement instruments.